- The existence of race as a meaningful concept in light of current knowledge about human genetic diversity. See Richard Lewontin's article "The apportionment of human diversity" (1972) and Lewontin's Fallacy for more information.
- Quantum and classical physics.
- Bayesian and Frequentist methods for statistical inference.
Scientists have chosen sides in these debates based on education, philosophical preference, and sometimes practical concerns. Usually these debates can be reduced down to the appropriateness of certain calculations in solving scientific problems. For example the Bayesian-Frequentist debate largely centers on the incorporation of prior information into inferential calculations. In "Confidence Intervals vs Bayesian Intervals," by ET Jaynes suggests that all of these debates over methods can be resolved by benchmarking methods on a set of focused problems:
I suggest we apply the same criterion in statistics: the merits of any statistical method are determined by the results it gives when applied to specific problems.